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Apidae (87 taxa)

This family includes what Mitchell referred to as the families Anthophoridae and Apidae. Current phylogenetics used here are from Michener (2000).

Keys to Subfamilies of Apidae (From Michener 2000)

1. Scopa of female, when present, forming a corbicula on posterior tibia; inner apical margin of posterior tibia of nonparasitic females (except in queens of Apini) with row of stiff bristles (the rastellum); pygidial and basitibial plates absent; eyes hairy or jugal lobe of hind wing absent...2

apimelfemhindtibia.JPG (43160 bytes) bomfraqueenscopa.JPG (62780 bytes) bompenqueencorbicula.JPG (59948 bytes) apimelfemhindtibia2.JPG (45121 bytes) apimelfemscopa.JPG (40144 bytes) apimelfemcheek.JPG (50231 bytes)

Scopa of female not forming a tibial corbicula, and scopa sometimes absent; inner apical margins of posterior tibia bare or hairy, without comb; pygidial and basitibial plates frequently present; eyes very rarely hairy and jugal lobe of hind wing almost always present...3

2. Eye hairy; jugal lobe of hind wing present although notch delimiting it shallow; hind tibial spurs absent; arolia present..Apinae, Apini

apimelfemcheek.JPG (50231 bytes) apimelfemwing2.JPG (33855 bytes) apimelfemhindbasitarsus2.JPG (44177 bytes)

Eye bare; jugal lobe of hind wing absent; hind tibial spurs present; arolia absent...Apinae, Bombini

bomimpqueenside2.JPG (45112 bytes) bompenmalewing.JPG (40367 bytes)

3. Stigma absent; middle and hind basitarsi usually longer than tibiae; clypeus nearly flat, lower lateral areas not curved backward...Xylocopinae, Xylocopini

xylmicfemwing.JPG (75745 bytes) xylmicfemabdtop2.JPG (75190 bytes) xylvirvirfemfaceclose.JPG (125434 bytes)

Stigma present, although sometimes (e.g., Anthophora, Centris) very small; middle and hind basitarsi usually shorter than tibiae; clypeus variable but usually more convex with lower lateral parts bent backward...4

cerdupfemalewing.JPG (31474 bytes) epeflofemwing.JPG (52732 bytes) cerdupfemaleside2.JPG (34201 bytes)

4. Pygidial plate absent, sometimes represented by spine in pygidial fimbria of female; scopa present; epistomal suture between lateral extremity and subantennal suture usually bent mesad such that upper part of clypeus is almost parallel-sided; clypeus not or weakly protuberant...Xylocopinae, Ceratinini

cerdupfemaletergum7.JPG (42943 bytes) cerdupfemalescopa.JPG (54812 bytes) cerdupfemaleface3.JPG (61057 bytes)

Pygidial plate present in females and most males, or if absent in females, then scopa also absent; epistomal suture not or rarely bent mesad such that upper part of clypeus is nearly parallel-sided; clypeus commonly strongly protuberant, lower lateral parts bent strongly posteriorly...5

5. Second abscissa of vein M+Cu of hind wing shorter than cu-v; scopa absent (posterior angle of mandible beneath middle of lower end of eye; claws of at least hind leg usually with inner ramus a broad lobe...Apinae, Ericrocidini

Second abscissa of vein M+Cu of hind wing as long as to much longer than cu-v, but if equal, then hairy bees with scopa...6

epeflofemwing.JPG (52732 bytes)

6. Jugal wing of hind wing small, less than one-fouth as long as vannal lobe; scopae absent ...7

Jugal wing of hind wing at least one-fouth as long as vannal lobe; scopae usually present ...8

7. Front coxae quadrate, trochanters arising from outer distal angles of coxae, trochanters thus far apart; axilla nearly always produced to acute angle or spine; S6 of female largely invaginated, disc reduced and lateral distal portions produced to form a pair of long, dentate or spinose processes...Nomadinae, Epeolini

doeconfempleurabelow.JPG (60673 bytes) epeflofemscutellum.JPG (68851 bytes) doepecfemaxillae.JPG (66285 bytes) epeilifempygidium.JPG (61099 bytes) doelunlunfemtergum5.JPG (66120 bytes)

Front coxae somewhat triangular, trochanters arising close to one another from apices of coxae (except lateral to apical coxal spines if spine present); axilla usually rounded; S6 of female not much invaginated, disc not greatly reduced, spinose processes, if present, short or mere lobes...Nomadinae, Nomadini

nomausfemcoxalspines2.JPG (65459 bytes) nomartfemscutellumclose.JPG (59994 bytes) nombisfemsterna.JPG (48849 bytes)

8. Paraglossa as long as first two segments of labial palpus taken together; jugal lobe of hind wing about half as long vannal lobe or sometimes more; antena of males commonly elongate..Apinae, Eucerini

eucdubmaletongueclose.JPG (24844 bytes) eucdubfemwing.JPG (40817 bytes) eucdubmaleside.JPG (32828 bytes)

Paraglossa much shorter than first segment of labial palpus; jugal lobe of hind wing usually less than half as long as vannal lobe; antennae of males usually not elongate...9

ptibomfemtongueside.JPG (26781 bytes) ptibommaletongue.JPG (35741 bytes) meltaumaleside.JPG (43653 bytes)

9. Stigma small, usually shorter than prestigma, parallel sided, vein r arising near its apex; distal parts of wing strongly papillate, basal parts usually with large bare areas...10

antabrmalewing.JPG (44061 bytes) antabrmalewing2.JPG (30975 bytes) cenerrfemwing.JPG (53230 bytes)

Stigma larger, longer than prestigma, tapering beyond vein r, which arises near middle of stigma; wings usually pubescent throughout and only weakly papillate apically..Apinae, Emphorini

ptibomfemwing.JPG (46272 bytes) meltaumalewing.JPG (44518 bytes) 

10. First submarginal cell larger than second, posterior margin longer than that of second; scopal hairs of female largely simple, sometimes plumose along upper margin of tibia..Apinae, Anthophorini

antabrmalewing2.JPG (30975 bytes) antabrmalewing.JPG (44061 bytes) hablabfemscopa2.JPG (49635 bytes)

First submarginal cell usually smaller than second, posterior margin shorter than that of second; scopal hairs of female mostly plumose, often intermixed with simple hairs or with projecting simple apices...Apinae, Centridini

cenerrfemwing.JPG (53230 bytes) cenerrfemscopa.JPG (59924 bytes) cenlanfemscopa3.JPG (33570 bytes)

Systematic Overview of the Apidae in Florida

Subfamily Xylocopinae

Tribe Ceratinini

Genus Ceratina

Subgenus Ceratinula


Tribe Xylocopini

Genus Xylocopa

Subgenus Schonherria


Subfamily Nomadinae

Tribe Nomadini

Genus Nomada

Tribe Epeolini

Genus Triepeolus

Genus Epeolus

Subfamily Apinae

Tribe Emphorini

Genus Melitoma

Genus Ptilothrix

Tribe Eucerini

Genus Eucera

Subgenus Synhalonia

Genus Florilegus

Genus Melissodes

Subgenus Apomelissodes



Genus Svastra

Subgenus Epimelissodes

Genus Xenoglossa

Subgenus Eoxenoglossa

Tribe Anthophorini

Genus Anthophora

Subgenus Melea

Genus Habropoda

Tribe Centridini

Genus Centris

Subgenus Centris


Tribe Erocrocidini

Genus Erocrocis

Tribe Bombini

Genus Bombus

Subgenus Bombias





Tribe Apini

Genus Apis