5. What Latin abbreviations mean

You will have encountered abbreviations derived from Latin expressions. Here's what they mean, first as spelled out in Latin, and then (after a double-dash) as translated into English.

aff. - affinis -- having affinity with but not identical to

auct. - auctorum -- of authors [written like that by various authors]

ca. - circa -- about [refers to dates]

cf. - confer -- compare with

c.v. - curriculum vitae -- (curriculum of life), or resume [it is curious that we have to give the nearest English equivalent as a French word (résumé), which is spelled in American English resume. Some people call a c.v. "a vitae", but vitae means "of life"].

e.g. - exempli gratia -- for example

et al. - et alii -- and others

etc. - et cetera -- (and the rest), and so on

ex. - exemplar -- example or specimen [the plural is written exx.]

ibid. -  ibidem -- from the same place

id. - idem - the same

i.e. - id est -- that is (to say), or in other words

in coll. - in collectionem -- in the collection [usually followed by the name of a collection or museum]

indet. - indeterminans -- unidentified

in litt. - in litteris -- in correspondence

leg. - legit --  he, she, or it collected

loc. cit. - loco citato -- in the place [work, paper, etc.] cited

n.b. - nota bene -- take good note

op. cit. - opere citato -- in the work cited

p. - pagina -- page [singular; plural is paginae, abbreviated pp.]

s.l. - sensu lato -- in the broad sense

sp. - species -- species [singular; plural is species, abbreviated as spp.]

sp. nov. - species nova -- new species [singular; plural is species novae, abbreviated as spp. nov.]

ssp. - subspecies -- subspecies [singular; plural is subspecies, abbreviated sspp.]

s. str. - sensu stricto -- in the strict sense

q.v. - quod vide -- see (for which, see)

viz. - videlicet -- namely