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Subfamily Nemobiinae

ground crickets

link to keys Key to families and subfamilies of crickets.
link to keys Key to genera of ground crickets (Nemobiinae).

To view distribution maps and photographs and hear the songs of North American ground crickets, go to the list of species and access the species pages, which are under development.


Alexander RD, Thomas ES. 1959. Systematic and behavioral studies on the crickets of the Nemobius fasciatus group (Orthoptera:Gryllidae: Nemobiinae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 52: 591-605.

Ballard HEJ. 1991. First report of Allonemobius griseus new record and Psinidia fenestralis new record in Ohio (Orthoptera: Gryllidae and Acrididae). Gt. Lakes Entomol. 24: 181-182.

Benedix JHJ, Howard DJ. 1991. Calling song displacement in a zone of overlap and hybridization. Evolution 45: 1751-1759. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Blatchley WS. 1920. Orthoptera of northeastern America. Indianapolis, IN: Nature Publishing. 784 p. Gryllinae (Blatchley's Gryllinae included Nemobiinae) (pp. 670-709) (The introductory pages to Blatchley's book are accessible on SINA's home page.)

Bourne JR, Niellson RJ. 1967. Nemobius fasciatus-A predator on horn fly pupae. J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 272-274. [=Allonemobius socius]

Bradford MJ, Roff DA. 1993. Bet hedging and the diapause strategies of the cricket Allonemobius fasciatus. Ecology 74: 1129-1135.

Bradford MJ, Guerette PA, Roff DA. 1993. Testing hypotheses of adaptive variation in cricket ovipositor lengths. Oecologia 93: 263-267. [Allonemobius socius]

Bradford MJ, Roff DA. 1995. Genetic and phenotypic sources of life history variation along a cline in voltinism in the cricket Allonemobius socius. Oecologia 103: 319-326.

Bradford MJ, Roff DA. 1997. An empirical model of diapause strategies of the cricket Allonemobius socius. Ecology 78: 442-451.

Braswell WE, Birge LM, Howard, DJ. 2006. Allonemobius shalontaki, a new cryptic species of ground cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Nemobiinae) from the southwestern United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 99: 449-456.

Britch SC, Cain ML, Howard DJ. 2001. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the Allonemobius fasciatus-A. socius mosaic hybrid zone: a 14-year perspective. Mol. Ecol. 10: 627-638.

Chu J, Powers E, Howard DJ. 1995. Gene exchange in a ground cricket hybrid zone. J. Hered. 86: 17-21. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Doherty JA, Howard DJ. 1996. Lack of preference for conspecific calling songs in female crickets. Anim. Behav. 51: 981-989. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Fedorka KM, Mousseau TA. 2002. Tibial spur feeding in ground crickets: larger males contribute larger gifts (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Fla. Entomol. 85: 324-329.

Forrest TG, Sylvester JLJ, Testa S, III, Smith SW, Dinep A, Cupit TL, Huggins JM, Atkins KL, Eubanks M. 1991. Mate choice in ground crickets (Gryllidae: Nemboiinae). Fla. Entomol. 74: 74-80. [Neonemobius sp.]

Fox H. 1938. The occurrence of Nemobius sparsalsus Fulton in southern New Jersey (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Entomol. News 49: 133-138. [=Allonemobius sparsalsus]

Fulton BB. 1930. A new species of Nemobius from North Carolina (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Entomol. News 41: 38-42. [Allonemobius sparsalsus]

Fulton BB. 1931. A study of the genus Nemobius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24: 205-237.

Fulton BB. 1933. Inheritance of song in hybrids of two subspecies of Nemobius fasciatus (Orthoptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 26: 368-376. [=Allonemobius allardi; also A. socius and A. tinnulus]

Fulton BB. 1937. Experimental crossing of subspecies in Nemobius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 30: 201-207.

Gregory PG, Howard DJ. 1993. Laboratory hybridization studies of Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 86: 694-701.

Gregory PG, Howard DJ. 1994. A postinsemination barrier to fertilization isolates two closely related ground crickets. Evolution 48: 705-710. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Gregory PG, Remmenga MD, Howard DJ. 1998. Patterns of mating between two closely related ground crickets are not influenced by sympatry. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 87: 263-270. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Gross SW, Mays DL, Walker TJ. 1990. Systematics of Pictonemobius ground crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 115: 433-56.

Hebard M. 1913. A revision of the species of the genus Nemobius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) found in North America north of the Isthmus of Panama. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 65: 394-492.

Hebard M. 1915. The genus Hygronemobius, with the description of one new species. Entomol. News 26: 193-199, 1 pl. [Hygronemobius alleni]

Howard DJ. 1983. Electrophoretic survey of eastern North American Allonemobius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae): Evolutionary relationships and the discovery of 3 new species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 76: 1014-1021.

Howard DJ, Furth DG. 1986. Review of the Allonemobius fasciatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) complex with the description of two new species separated by electrophoresis, songs, and morphometrics. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 79: 472-481.

Howard DJ, Gregory PG, Chu J, Cain ML. 1998. Conspecific sperm precedence is an effective barrier to hybridization between closely related species. Evolution 52: 511-516. [1083 KB] [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Howard DJ, Harrison RG. 1984a. Habitat segregation in ground crickets: The role of interspecific competition and habitat selection. Ecology 65: 69-76. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. allardi]

Howard DJ, Harrison RG. 1984b. Habitat segregation in ground crickets: Experimental studies of adult survival, reproductive success and oviposition preference. Ecology 65: 61-68. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. allardi]

Howard DJ, Waring GL. 1991. Topographic diversity, zone width, and the strength of reproductive isolation in a zone of overlap and hybridization. Evolution 45: 1120-1135. [1699 KB] [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Howard DJ, Waring GL, Tibbets CA, Gregory PG. 1993. Survival of hybrids in a mosaic hybrid zone. Evolution 47: 789-800. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Johnstone DE, Vickery VR. 1970. Notes on the palustris-cubensis complex of the genus Neonemobius Hebard (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Nemobiinae). J. Georg. Entomol. Soc. 5: 233-241.

Mays DL. 1971. Mating behavior of nemobiine crickets - Hygronemobius, Nemobius and Pteronemobius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Fla. Entomol. 54: 113-126.

Mousseau TA, Roff DA. 1995. Genetic and environmental contributions to geographic variation in the ovipositor length of a cricket. Ecol. Wash. D C. 76: 1473-1482. [Allonemobius socius]

Mousseau TA, Howard DJ. 1998. Genetic variation in cricket calling song across a hybrid zone between two sibling species. Evolution 52: 1104-1110. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Nielsson RJ, Bass MH. 1967. Seasonal occurrence and number of instars of Nemobius fasciatus a pest on white clover. J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 699-701. [=Allonemobius socius]

Rakshpal R. 1964. Diapause in the eggs of Nemobius allardi Alexander and Thomas (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Nemobiinae). Zool. Anz. 73: 282-288. [=Allonemobius allardi]

Rehn JAG, Hebard M. 1918. A new species of the genus Nemobius from California. Entomol. News 29: 102-104. [Neonemobius eurynotus]

Sarai DS. 1967. Effects of temperature and photoperiod in embryonic diapause in Nemobius fasciatus (de Geer) (Orthoptera Gryllidae). Quaestiones Entomol. 3: 107-135. [=Allonemobius fasciatus]

Tanaka S. 1986. De-alation, flight muscle histolysis, and oocyte development in the striped ground cricket, Allonemobius fasciatus. Physiol. Entomol. 11: 453-458. [997 KB]

Tanaka S. 1986. Developmental characteristics of two closely related species of Allonemobius and their hybrids. Oecologia 69: 388-394. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Tanaka S. 1987. Changing responses to temperature and moisture of diapausing and developing eggs of Allonemobius fasciatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). J. Insect Physiol. 33: 635-642.

Tanaka S. 1991. Genetic compatibility and geographic profile of two closely related species of Allonemobius (Gryllidae: Orthoptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 84: 29-36. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Tanaka S. 1992. Factors influencing embryonic diapause in the striped ground cricket, Allonemobius fasciatus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). JPN. J. Entomol. 60: 149-155.

Thomas ES, Alexander RD. 1957. Nemobius melodius, a new species of cricket from Ohio (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Ohio J Sci 57: 148-152. [=Eunemobius melodius]

Urquhart FA. 1938. A new species of Nemobius from Ontario (Orthoptera). Can. Entomol. 70: 101-102. [Eunemobius carolinus]

Veech JA, Benedix JH, Jr., Howard DJ. 1996. Lack of calling song displacement between two closely related ground crickets. Evolution 50: 1982-1989. [Allonemobius fasciatus and A. socius]

Vickery VR. 1969. Two species of Pteronemobius previously unreported in Quebec (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Grylloidea: Nemobiinae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Que. 14: 22-24. [Allonemobius griseus and Neonemobius palustris]

Vickery VR, Johnstone DE. 1970. Generic status of some Nemobiinae (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in northern North America. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 1740-1749.

Vickery VR, Weissman DB. 1989. Neonemobius eurynotus, Rehn and Hebard, (Grylloptera: Trigonidiidae: Nemobiinae), a cricket of the San Francisco Bay area, California. Pan-Pacific Entomol. 65: 68-73.

Weibel AC, Howard DJ. 2000a. Discovery of new populations of striped ground crickets in western North America: distribution, subdivision, and introduction detected by allozyme data. J. Entomol. Res. Soc. 2(2): 1-25. [Allonemobius allardi, A. fasciatus, and A. socius]

Weibel AC, Howard DJ. 2000b. Canonical correlation of allozyme and morphological variation across distinct geological features in one species of striped ground crickets. J. Entomol. Res. Soc. 2(3): 15-29. [Allonemobius allardi, A. fasciatus, and A. socius]