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Subfamily Conocephalinae

meadow katydids

link to keys Key to families and subfamilies of katydids.
link to keys Key to genera of meadow katydids (Conocephalinae).

To view distribution maps and photographs and hear the songs of North American meadow katydids go to the list of species and access the species pages, which are under development.


Bailey WJ, Morris GK. 1986. Confusion of phonotaxis by masking sounds in the bushcricket Conocephalus brevipennis (Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae). Ethology 73: 19-28.

Blatchley WS. 1920. Orthoptera of northeastern America. Indianapolis, IN: Nature Publishing. 784 p. Conocephalinae (pp. 533-586). (The introductory pages to Blatchley's book are accessible on SINA's home page.)

Cabrero J, Shapiro LH, Camacho JPM. 1999. Male sterility in interspecific meadow katydid hybrids. Hereditas 131: 79-82. [Orchelimum pulchellum and O. nigripes]

De Luca PA, Morris GK. 1998. Courtship communication in meadow katydids: female preference for large male vibrations. Behaviour 135: 777-794. [Conocephalus nigropleurum]

Feaver MN. 1983. Pair formation in the katydid Orchelimum nigripes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). In: Gwynne DT, Morris GK, editors. Orthopteran mating systems: sexual competition in a diverse group of insects. Boulder CO: Westview. p 205-39.

Feaver MN. 1985. Interspecific interactions between Orchelimum nigripes and Orchelimum volantum, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae. Great Lakes Entomol. 18: 15-18.

Fullard JH, Morris GK, Mason AC. 1989. Auditory processing in the black-sided meadow katydid Conocephalus nigropleurum, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae. J. Comp. Physiol. A 164:501-512.

Gurney AB. 1959. New records of Orthoptera and Dermaptera from the United States. Fla. Entomol. 42: 75-80. [Conocephalus cinereus]

Gwynne DT. 1982. Mate selection by female katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, Conocephalus nigropleurum). Anim. Behav. 30: 734-738.

Gwynne DT, Morris GK. 1986. Heterospecific recognition and behavioral isolation in acoustic Orthoptera (Insecta). Evol. Theory 8: 33-38. [Conocephalus nigropleurum]

Metcalf CL, Colby AS. 1930. The meadow grasshopper Orchelimum vulgare Harris a new raspberry pest. J. Econ. Entomol. 23: 97-108.

Morris GK, Fullard JH. 1983. Random noise and congeneric discrimination in Conocephalus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). In: Gwynne DT, Morris GK, editors. Orthopteran mating systems: sexual competition in a diverse group of insects. Boulder CO: Westview. p 73-96. [Conocephalus attenuatus, C. brevipennis, C. nigropleurum]

Morris GK, Kerr GE, Fullard JH. 1978. Phonotactic preferences of female meadow katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalus nigropleurum). Can. J. Zool. 56: 1479-1487.

Morris GK, Kerr GE, Gwynne DT. 1975. Ontogeny of phonotaxis in Orchelimum gladiator (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae). Can. J. Zool. 53: 1127-1130.

Morris GK, Pipher RE. 1967. Tegminal amplifiers and spectrum consistencies in Conocephalus nigropleurum (Bruner) Tettigoniidae. J. Insect Physiol. 13: 1075-1085.

Morris GK, Walker TJ. 1976. Calling songs of Orchelimum meadow katydids (Tettigoniidae) I: Mechanism, terminology, and geographical distribution. Can. Entomol. 108: 785-800.

Nielsen ET. 1978. Structure of the stridulation of Orchelimum (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). J. Comp. Physiol. A 126: 343-346. [Orchelimum agile, O. erythrocephalum]

Parsons KA, De La Cruz AA. 1980. Energy flow and grazing behavior of conocephaline grasshoppers in a Juncus roemerianus marsh. Ecology 61: 1045-1050. [Orchelimum concinnum, Conocephalus spp.]

Pipher RE, Morris GK. 1974. Frequency modulation in Conocephalus nigropleurum the black-sided meadow katydid (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Can. Entomol.: 997-1001.

Rehn JAG, Hebard M. 1915a. Studies in American Tettigoniidae. IV. A synopsis of the species of the genus Orchelimum. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 41: 11-83.

Rehn JAG, Hebard M. 1915b. Studies in American Tettigoniidae. V. A synopsis of the species of the genus Conocephalus (Xiphidium of authors) found in North America north of Mexico. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 41: 155-224.

Shapiro L. 1995a. A new katydid for Long Island, NY: First record of Orchelimum silvaticum east of Ohio, with notes on two adventive katydids from Long Island. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 103: 114-120.

Shapiro L. 1995b. Parasitism of Orchelimum katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) by Ormia lineifrons (Diptera: Tachinidae). Fla. Entomol. 78: 615-616. [Orchelimum nigripes, O. pulchellum, O. agile, and O. silvaticum]

Shapiro LH. 1998. Hybridization and geographic variation in two meadow katydid contact zones. Evolution 52: 784-796. [Orchelimum nigripes and O. pulchellum]

Shapiro LH. 2000. Reproductive costs to heterospecific mating between two hybridizing katydids (Orthoptera : Tettigoniidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 93: 440-446. [Orchelimum nigripes and O. pulchellum]

Shapiro, L.H. 2001. Asymmetric assortative mating between two hybridizing Orchelimum katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Am. Midl. Nat. 145: 423-427. [Orchelimum nigripes and O. pulchellum]

Stainer JER. 1975. The status of Conocephalus fasciatus vicinus (Morse 1901) (Orthoptera: Conocephalidae). J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 72: 31-35.

Stiling P, Brodbeck BV, Strong DR. 1991. Population increases of planthoppers on fertilized salt-marsh cord grass may be prevented by grasshopper feeding. Fla. Entomol. 74: 88-97. [Orchelimum fidicinium]

Thomas ES, Alexander RD. 1962. Systematic and behavioral studies on the meadow grasshoppers of the Orchelimum concinnum group (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 626: 1-31. [Orchelimum concinnum, O. campestre, and O. delicatum]

Vickery VR. 1974. Proposed suppression of Xiphidium glaberrimum Burmeister 1838 and Orchelimum cuticulare Audinet-Serville 1838 and proposed addition of Orchelimum vulgare Harris 1841 to the official lists (Insecta Grylloptera). Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 31: 218-220.

Walker TJ. 1971. Orchelimum carinatum, a new meadow katydid from the southeastern United States (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Fla. Entomol. 54: 277-281.