Key to subfamilies of Cicadidae

1. Pronotum extending posteriorly over mesonotum, leaving only raised and pointed mesoscutellum and its lateral projections exposed; mesonotum in both sexes extending posteriorly over basal two abdominal segments; mesoscutellum posteriorly not bearing a raised "X" configuration; males and females with basal abdominal timbals exposed laterally and opercula lacking; tympana quite small, laterally situated, not surrounded internally by large abdominal/thoracic tracheal air sacs; nymphs burrow beneath soil surface, feed on tree roots, have greatly elongated fore coxae, have laterally flattened fore femora, and lack flattened tergopleural abdominal flaps covering spiracles but sides of abdominal terga extend ventrally and partly obscure spiracles at margins of very setose sternites; Australia, only Tettigarctinae
1' Pronotum covering at most only anterior-most section of mesonotum, leaving most of mesoscutum and all of mesoscutellum exposed; mesonotum (and/or metanotum, in males) extending posteriorly over only part of first dorsally visible abdominal segment) in females may reach base of second dorsally visible abdominal segment, at most; mesoscutellum posteriorly bearing a raised "X" configuration; males with or without functional laterally-situated basal abdominal timbals, females lacking timbals; well developed ventral abdominal tympana present in both sexes, surrounded internally with large abdominal/thoracic tracheal air sacs in both sexes; nymphs burrow beneath soil surface with laterally flattened fore femora and tibiae, feed on xylem sap of plant roots, have greatly elongated fore coxae, have ventrally extending flattened tergopleural abdominal flaps covering spiracles at sides of sternites of most abdominal segments 2
2. Posterior margin of metanotum exposed dorsomedially beyond mesonotum 3
2' Posterior margin of metanotum concealed dorsomedially by mesonotum
3. Costal margins of forewings in both sexes strongly arched, rounded, and swollen on under surface, especially medially, forming percussion surfaces clapped together or on substrate branches during sound production (some species in a few other genera in other subfamilies with timbals have similar forewing modifications, apparently also involved in sound production); timbals lacking in both sexes; opercula tiny or lacking in both sexes, not extending over first abdominal sternite; body length 25 mm or less; narrow abdomen tapering gradually to a pointed termination; western North America, Ivory Coast of Africa, Szechuan Province, China Platypediinae
3' Costal margins of forewings neither strongly arched nor swollen in either sex; basal abdominal timbal areas exposed and functional timbals present in males, only; opercula present in both sexes, extending at least over most of first abdominal sternite; body length variable, some less than and some much larger than 25 mm; stouter, nearly parallel sided abdomen tapers strikingly near termination; some species with extensive dark and light or colored patterning in forewings; world-wide; many genera and species Tibicininae
4. Timbals entirely exposed, present in males only; in both sexes, extreme lateral margins near base of mesonotum with a raised area bearing strdulatory striations which can be scraped by a corresponding close strong vein in the basal anal region of each forewing; veins in forewings differentially stiffened and stout and cells darkened along them in many species; bodies in many species densely covered with long setae; western South America Tettigadinae
4' Timbals entirely or partly concealed by tergal projections of second or third abdominal terga, present in males only; forewings in many species marked extensively with dark and light patterning; world-wide 5
5. Timbals in males partly or nearly entirely covered by tergal flaps from second and/or third abdominal segment; abdomen of males in most species translucent or nearly transparent, particularly ventrally; world-wide; many genera and species Cicadinae
5' Timbals in males of most species entirely or mostly covered by tergal flaps from second and/or third abdominal segments that at first glance appear as part of the normal skeleton; abdomen in both sexes neither translucent nor nearly transparent; world-wide; the largest number of genera and species Tibiceninae
Revised 1 Apr. 2001