Caribbean Fruit Fly
Increasingly, application of pesticides
by air and occasionally by ground for fruit fly control is meeting resistance
from environmentalists as well as the general public. Access to critically
sensitive areas including, hospitals, bodies of water and school zones is
becoming problematic for fruit fly eradication programs emphasizing
broad-spectrum insecticides (Clark et al. 1996). The situation is further
complicated since cultural and biological control methods will not yield
immediate results that is necessary for successful eradication programs (VanDriesche
and Bellows 1996). Alternative strategies for managing these critically
sensitive areas must be developed since we cannot allow these potential
target-pest inhabitation areas to harbor densities of fruit flies, which will
eventually threaten pest eradication programs.
Several types of traps, as well as
trap-lure combinations and baits, specifically designed to increase monitoring
capabilities minimizing environmental impact and decrease chemical residue on
fruit crops have been tested for control of Tephritids including the Caribbean
fruit-fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). Open bottom plastic traps baited with a
two-component synthetic lure BioLure (ammonium acetate and putrescine) and AMPu
(ammonium carbonate + methylamine HCl and putrescine) were shown to be efficient
in capturing A. suspensa.
Several opiine brachonid parasitoid
species were introduced into the United States for biological control of A.
suspensa. Only few of them including Diachasimorpha longicaudata (Ash.) and Doryctobracon aureolatus (Szepligeti) have become established.
Sivinsky et al. 1999 found that A. suspensa larvae and their brachonid
parasitoids are evenly distributed within the canopy of the host trees.
Baranowski (1993) recorded up to 43% parasitism for A. suspensa with D. longicaudata. The development of an efficient management program that
targets A. suspensa without harming parasitiod populations is needed.
Recently, the strategy of using imidacloprid-treated spheres for management of key fruit fly pests, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) and Rhagoletis mendax Curran have been
given much attention in north eastern United States (Liburd et al. 1999, Prokopy
et al. 2001, Stelinski and Liburd 2001) and Mexico. This strategy may also work
well for other fruit fly species including the Caribbean fruit fly. However,
before any large-scale trials are developed, laboratory assays must be performed
to determine A. suspensa response to imidacloprid-treated spheres.
Although, efforts are on the way to develop bait stations, there are no studies
in the literature that have explored the potential of using imidacloprid
-treated sphere tactics for control of A. suspensa. In addition, no
one has reported on how imidacloprid-treated sphere may affect key fruit fly
parasitoids such as D. longicaudata. Our goals were two-fold: 1)
To conduct laboratory and field assays to explore the potential of using
imidacloprid-treated spheres for management of Caribbean fruit flies and 2) To
evluate the effects of imidacloprid-treated spheres on a key parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata of the Caribbean fruit fly.
Papers and Presentations